* AT WORK
SOME NOTES ON THE CONTENTS
A shortage of brown Government franked envelopes, because of national de-
Tense, held up for several weeks, the mailing of the July issue.
The overwhelming response of Indians to th3 nation's needs in its armed
forces, its defense training courses, and on defense Jobs throughout the country, tells
better than words the Indians' desire to defend their country and safeguard its peace.
As a small minority, Indians know the battle for minority rights and freedom
is not won easily, nor completely, as long as war stalks the world. Many thousands in
the present emergency have stated their unalterable opposition to Hitlerism and his
subjugation of minorities. Fitting then is the theme of the American Indian Exposi-
tion, to be held again at Anadarko, Oklahoma, this August. "Peace on the Prairie" wil]
tell through chants and dances the story of the peace treaties made by the six tribes
who live on the Washita, and who to this day, are willing to sacrifice their live3, If
need be, to save their lands for themselves and their children.
Many Oklahoma tribes take part every year in the American Indian Exposition,
which rivals the Gallup, New Mexico, Inter-Tribal Ceremonials in color, exhibits, danc-
es, and parades. The Anadarko Exposition is the only big show operated by Indians ex-
clusively, assisted by members of the Indian Service staff. The dates this year are
August 20 - 23. Margaret P. Speelman, of the Haskell staff, whose successful pageants
are well-known in Indian country, will write and direct "Peace on the Prairie."
The picture on page 5 is one of the Southwest dances performed at last year' a
American Indian Exposition. Manager of the Exposition is an enterprising young Comanche,
Bill Karty, also chairman of the Kiowa-Conanche-Apach« Inter-Tribal Council.
The front cover picture is a Pueblo Indian who decorates pottery. The noted
photographer, H. Armstrong Roberts, has furnished this for reproduction in "Indians At
Work", together with the picture of the Navajo baby and lamb on page 8.
The subject of the frontispiece picture is a full-blood Yakima woman, Mrs.
Wack-Wack, making a teepee, whenever commercial dxlers for teepees come to the Yakima
Indian Reservation in Washington, Mrs. Wack-Wack usually gets the job. This picture
was made by an excellent amateur photographer, Thomas L. Carter, Indian Service For-
ester, who has since been promoted to Regional Forester at the Billings, Montana, of-
fice. Note of Mr. Carter's other abilities, as demonstrated at Yakima, appears in a
letter on page 32.
Items and a picture of Dr. Luis Valcarcel, in connection with his recent
visit with Commissioner Collier (story on page 22) were contributed by an old friend of
the Indian Service, Dr. John Harrington, of Smithsonian Institution.
Milton Snow, Navajo Service Photographer, got some interesting shots of Nav-
ajos at an important tribal meeting last spring, including one of the Chairman of the
Navajo Tribal Council, J. C. Morgan, whose picture appears on page 12, and other Nav-
ajos whose pictures appear on page 13 and on the back cover.
Above the roaring crescendo of the mighty Columbia River as it tumbles over
rocky cliffs around Celilo Falls, Oregon, Indians from several tribes gather for the
annual spring and fall salmon runs. Like their ancestors, they build wooden platforms
over the slippery rocks and fish with, hand nets, tied to the rocks by ropes. A rope
tied around the waist is their only safeguard between a sudden slip and almost certain
death. The picture on page 33 was contributed by Harold Weaver, Indian Service Re-
gional Forester, and a good amateur photographer.
The pictures accompanying the story of a Papago meeting on pages 16 to 21,
were made by Eleanor B. Williams, of the editorial staff, on a recent field trip.
Note To Editors:
Text in this magazine is available for reprinting
as desired. Pictures will be supplied to the
extent of their availability.
INDIANS AT WORK
InThislssue . . AUGUST l94l
Comments On The Contributions 7m-.°rT!T. Inside Front Cover
Editorial John Collier 1
Sioux Girl in Big Coulee School, Sisseton,
North Dakota (Photo by John Vachon) 3
William Nickaboine, Chippewa Indian
(Photo by Cordon Sommers ) 6
Navajo Baby And Lamb (Photo by H. Armstrong
Roberts ) 8
President Roosevelt Addresses Navajo People , 10
Over 1,200 Navajo Groups Hear President's
A Navajo And One of the Stallions Purchased
By the Tribe (Photo by Milton Snow) 13
Straight "A* s" Win Scholarships H
Grass-Roots Democracy On The Desert Eleanor B. Williams 16
Peru Would Learn From Us 22
How Springtime Came To The Quapaw Brant C. Bracken 23
Women Attend Tribal Meetings Too (Photo by
Frank Werner) 24
Indians In The News 25
Chaca, Hopi Indian CCC Worker (Photo by
Carson Ryan) 27
Food Is Important To National Defense
(Photo by John Vachon) 28
From The Mail Bag 29
California Indian Boys Make Jewelry From
Beach Shells (Photo by Frank Werner) 31
An Ancient And Dangerous Profession (Photo
by Harold Weaver) 33
Seminole Women And Children In Their
"Chickee" (Photo by Hugh Alexander) 34
William B. Hill, New Superintendent At
Seminole Ins ide Back Cover
Herbert Welsh Dies Inside Back Cover
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF T HE INTERIOR - OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS-WASHINGTON, O.C
A News Sheet For INDIANS and me INDIAN SERVICE
VOLUME VIII AUGUST 1941 NUMBER 12
The "Acta Final" of the First Inter- American Conference on In-
dian Life, Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico, translated, is at hand. It is a
publication of real beauty, entirely the work of Sherman Institute and
Phoenix Indian School students. Copies, limited in number, may be had
through the Indian Office.
The "Acta Final" is the authorized version of all the resolutions
and actions taken at the Inter- American Conference. The resolutions enun-
ciating policies were in nearly all cases presented at sectional meetings,
there debated at greater or less length, and adopted or rejected. Often
proposals were modified before adoption, and sometimes informal committees
were designated to find a common ground between divergent views. Each reso-
lution then was considered at a plenary session. The final actions were
practically or virtually unanimous, and represented a concurrence of dele-
gations of governments. A panorama of Indian life is spread before one who
examines the resolutions and actions.
I quote certain of the sections:
"Offices Of Indian Affairs
"From the cumulative experience of the United States of
America in the administration of Indian Affairs,
"1. That each Government should have within it some agency
whose purpose shall be to concentrate upon the problems of the
Indians, securing for them in an effective manner all the services
of the Government, and constantly serving as an advocate for the
"2. That this agency should not monopolize the administra-
tion of Indian Affairs but should seek to bring to bear upon the
problems of the Indian all the resources of Government, state,
local and Federal.
"3. That the Office of Indian Affairs should work indirectly
with the Indians through their organized group or community - or-
ganized for self-help, mutual aid, and mutual defense."
"Defense Of The Indian Culture
"In Order To Enrich The Culture Of Each Country
"That the American countries adopt and intensify the policy
of offering the greatest opportunity for developing the capacities
of their Indian groups, with the idea that the native culture may
not disappear, and may enrich the cultural trends of each country,
as well as of the world, and contribute to the strengthening of
"Contributions Of Ethnologists To The Solution
Of Problems Affecting Native Groups
"To the Governments of the American countries that their
relationship with Indians should be based insofar as possible,
on studies which set forth the historical process of cultural
formation of the indigenous groups concerned, and which show
through said historical analysis, the living forces within these
groups which may aid in the solution of their problems."
It was about thirty-five years ago that I came upon an exciting
article in one of the English quarterlies. This article told of the Islands
of Fiji, in Melanesia, and of the beginnings of a system of work with the
native peoples which the British had called "indirect administration." It
was long after this, through talks with Charles F. Lummis, that I learned
in a convincing way how old the philosophy and the technics of "indirect
administration" are. I had not known, when I first visited the Pueblos,
A Little Sioux Girl In The Big Coulee Day School, Sisseton, S. D.
that these communities existed, as we now know them, thanks to the "in-
direct administration" policies which were established very early by the
Spaniards and which later were buttressed by the Laws of the Indies. And
it was still later that I found in the libraries the strange and moving ac-
counts of the Jesuit Utopia of Paraguay, where white men, never numbering
more than one hundred, with no military support from Spain, guided and or-
ganized two hundred thousand Indians into a happy life which endured for
nearly two hundred years.
Gradually I came to realize that a universal principle had been
operating; that in Fiji, the British had merely come upon a universal prin-
ciple of human work, and that Indian administration in the United States was
merely rediscovering that ancient and universal principle. The Indian Re-
organization Act is one of its embodiments. It is not novel but very or-
thodox, and proved in many continents and times.
It was the recent visit to Washington of two sociologists from
the Pacific Islands which, as it were, completed a cycle in my own thought.
One of these sociologists was Dr. Felix N. Keesing and the other was Dr.
Laura Thompson, both from Hawaii. Dr. Keesing, who probably is the most
comprehensive authority, writing in any language, on the Pacific Islands,
received much of his training in the United States, where the Indian is a
leading subject-matter of anthropology. Dr. Thompson's training similar-
ly was in the United States. Dr. Keesing became the foremost authority
upon our Menominee Indians; in fact, he is among them at this writing. He
talked to our staff at the Washington Office, reviewing the Menominees*
life across two centuries and interpreting the Menominee of today against
this background, and every member of the staff felt that he knew the Men-
ominees and that he knew Indian administration.
In conversation, Dr. Keesing drew a parallel between the revival
of life, hope, and future among the Maoris of New Zealand and that revival
among our own Indians. Closely similar policies have produced comparable
results which in the case of the Maoris as of the Indians have startled all
Dr. Keesing has just issued a book "The South Seas in the Modern
World", published by The John Day Company, 391 pages. This book has become
a classic within the two months since its publication. What would Indian
workers give for such a book about Indiansl Such a book on Indians would
cover both North and South America. It would deal with the anthropology,
geography, economics, problems of land, administration, health and medical
work, missions, and "Retrospect and Prospect." What individual or group
of individuals might produce that needed book, paralleling Dr. Keesing* s?
Its influence in the hemisphere and in the cause of Pan-American solidarity
would be important.
Dr. Thompson, whose "Guam and Its People, A Study of Cultural
Change and Colonial Education", is just coming from the press, earlier wrote
An Apache Devil Dance, Borrowed
From The Southwest, For The American
Indian Exposition, August 20-23, Anadarko, Ok la.
William Nickaboine, Chippewa, On A WPA Project For
Cleaning Lands Around Mi lie Lacs Lake, Minnesota.
"Fijian Frontier", published by the American Council, Institute of Pacific
Relations, 147 pages. I dwell upon "Fijian Frontier" for a reason. Dr. B.
Malinowski, of Yale University, introducing "Fijian Frontier", remarks:
"In each chapter we have first a full description of the
integral process and the general picture of the native life of
today. The author then disentangles the old from the new, the
indigenous from the imported, and in each chapter has something
to say about the future outlook and the conclusions which mis-
sionary, administrator, and teacher might draw from past mistakes
and past achievements.
"In Fiji, as elsewhere, perhaps the most interesting phase
of culture contact is neither the historically old nor yet the
recently acquired western elements, but the terbium quid of spon-
taneous, original, creative adaptations to contact and change."
Dr. Malinowski adds:
"One of the most interesting contributions of the author
consists in showing in a clear and objective manner where these
administrative activities fail and why they fail. She is in full
sympathy with the attitude of the British authorities. She gives
them due credit not only for good will but also, on many points,
for an intelligent and well-directed purpose. But she makes it
quite clear that the main adaptations, the creative phase of
change and trans it ion, must be achieved by the natives themselves."
Even in Fiji, in other words, indirect administration has fallen
short of its possibilities. And yet in Fiji every government employee must
speak the language and must know all that he can know about the inwardness
of the Fijian.
There is an element of true profundity in Dr. Keesing's thought
and equally in Dr. Thompson's, and it is this element which calls for a
study of the literature of Oceania by our workers. Dr. Thompson's con-
cluding words are, after summarizing the conflicts which modern life has
precipitated within the Fijian groups:
"As we have seen, these closely related conflicts may be
resolved through the growing emphasis on personality. It is the
role of the administrator in Lau (in Fiji) to direct and control
the process of change toward the development of personality in
order to bridge the gulf between the two outlooks on life (italics
mine) and, by blending the old and the new, to work slowly toward
a new harmonious adjustment."
Each of these authors, primarily anthropologists, but with an
equal thoroughness students of administration, has the development of in-
dividual personality as the ultimate preoccupation. This means that each
author is first and last concerned with the problem of democracy (the happ7
making of the individual by the community, the happy making of the community
by the individual). Each is seeking through a deep knowledge of forms to
look beyond forms - social and political forms and all forms - to the soul
and being of the individual, wherein alone are the fruits reaped, the con-
flicts reconciled, and the creations achieved. Dr. Thompson disavows any
universal application of her Fijian findings, but Dr. Malinowski insists
that the applications are very wide and representative. At least, the pre-
occupation with the "soul beyond the form", in the study of primitive peo-
ples so-called, and in the criticism of the management of natives by govern-
ments, is a challenge quite universal. We cannot take it sufficiently to
heart and mind in our own Indian work.
And this preoccupation with personality and democracy is no mere
sentiment, with either of these writers. Rather, it is supported by method
and is the clue to the method of each of them. Therefore every Indian Serv-
ice worker can learn practically, and can improve his own mental apparatus,
through sloxvly reading and again and again reading books like the ones which
I mention here.
Returning to the Acta Final of the First Inter- American Conference
on Indian life. Through nearly all of its l£. pages of resolutions and ac-
tions is found the kind of thought that is gropingly expressed in this ed-
itorial. And this fact has an enormous significance. It means not only
that the right of the Indian to personality, and his significance in re-
lation to democracy, and his possession of democracy, are recognized by the
people working with him in the many countries of the Hemisphere. That is a
great deal. But in addition, in these actions and resolutions we find
governments declaring themselves for democracy, and for the right of per-
sonality, in terms of their most voiceless and humblest members. And none
of these resolutions was enacted with a propagandizing eye upon the pres-
ent world struggle. I do not recollect that during the ten days of the
Patzcuaro meeting the European situation was once dwelt upon. The actions
of the Conference came from within its members, and were directed solely
toward that task which had been laid upon the Conference by the earlier
meetings of the Republics which are members of the Pan American Union.
There is hope, in facts like these; and what a challenge they contain!
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT ADDRESSES NAVAJO PEOPLE
THE WHITE HOUSE
To The Navajo People:
Many months ago the Navajo Tribal Council addressed a resolution
to me which pledged the support and loyalty of the Navajo people to our
I now take occasion in these days of world crisis to address you.
I am concerned about the need for protecting your lands from erosion. I
an concerned that some of your leaders do not understand that to protect
your lands you must reduce the number of your sheep, and goats, and horses,
sufficiently to permit the grass to grow thickly and stop erosion.
If our nation is to remain strong, our land and forests and wa-
ters must be protected and cared for. Especially must we protect our soil,
for without soil no nation can endure.
One of the most important objectives of this nation is the pro-
tection of its soil and other natural resources. Your Government, through
the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Soil Conservation Service, the Office
of Indian Affairs and other agencies, has conducted an extensive program
for the protection of these resources. This program is under way on the
Navajo lands, as well as on lands throughout the nation.
Navajo Woman Herding Goats
I know that protection of your land will not be easy for all the
Navajo people. Many of you must sell some of your animals, or move them to
ranges away from the reservation. I know also that the Government must help
by building projects which will bring water to your land so that you can
grow food for your increasing population. The Government is building these
projects. The great Fruitland and Hogback irrigation projects are examples.
The Many Farms project which was authorized this year is another. And the
Government is making surveys on the Little Colorado and San Juan rivers to
find other opportunities to bring water to your lands.
The Government is planning for your future, but you must accept
your share of the work, and make your share of the sacrifices. You must
work with your Government. You must abide by the laws and regulations.
You must follow the leadership of the Tribal Council which is the elected
voice of the Navajo people.
By doing these things, you will remain strong and will defend the
way of democracy.
(Signed) FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
Through Mr. J. C. Morgan
Chairman, Navajo Tribal Council
(See next page for Mr. Morgan's reply)
Sheep On Government's Experimental Range. Navajo Reservation.
/*fw Hk i
OVER I ,200 NAVAJO GROUPS HEAR
PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE VIA RADIO
June 30, 19U
The White House
Dear Mr. President:
J. C. Morgan
This will assure you that I ex-
press in behalf of my people a heart -felt
gratitude for the profound interest you
have shown, not only to the Navajo people,
but to all other tribes in the United
On June 28, it was my privilege
to broadcast from the Agency f f i c e , at
Window Rock, your most helpful letter of
June 19, to all Navajo people. It has
been so far the most important broadcast
yet made, and it was reported that over 1,200 representative groups over
the entire reservation have listened to the reading of your letter.
It is my sincere belief and confidence that during a restless
period on the reservation, that our Indian people will take to heart your
wise words of encouragement for which again I wish to thank you very heart-
I know a great majority of Navajo people will more than appre-
ciate more agricultural land put under irrigation, which means more water
development on the reservation.
May the blessing of God, the Father, be upon you and that by His
wisdom and power you may be guided in these times of world crisis.
Very sincerely yours,
(Signed) J. C. Morgan.
-« ;X — Was, >,
A Navajo And One Of The Fine Stallions Purchased By The Tribe
Straight "As" Win Scholarships
Because of their high academ-
ic records, two Indian students have
been awarded valuable scholarships from
private institutions to continue their
studies this fall;
Tennyson Suagee, 25-year-old
Cherokee, who is a graduate student in
public administration at the University
of Oklahoma, recently received a grant
from the Julius Rosenwald Foundation.
The grant is for $1,200 and will enable
Tenm ys on to work toward a degree of
Doctor of Philosophy in Public Adminis-
tration at the University of Chicago.
The other student is Antoin-
ette Abeita, member of the well-known
Ab ei ta family of Isleta Pueblo, New
Mexico. Antoinette has made a remark-
ably high average during her three -year
nursing course at St. Anthony's School
of Nursing in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma,
and has been offered a year' s study
with all expenses paid at St. Mary Col-
lege, Leavenworth, Kansas.
Assisted By Educational Loans
Both students were assisted earlier in their college careers by
educational loans from the Indian Service. Educational loan funds for In-
dians were greatly expanded with the passage of the Indian Reorganization
Act in 1934. which authorized an appropriation of 150,000 to help deserving
young Indians interested in professional careers. Other funds provide for
trade or vocational school training. Some 570 Indians are now receiving
specialized training as a result of the Educational Loan Fund.
Tennyson Suagee first attended the University of Kansas and then
transferred to the University of Oklahoma where he completed work for his
Bachelor of Arts degree in June 1940. Fluent in English and interested in
politics, he majored in public administration and journalism and planned to
become a political reporter. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and made
President of the Society of Public Administration on the University of Ok-
Ab a result of his outstand-
ing record, Tennyson was given a
scholarship by the University of Okla-
homa in 1940 to do graduate work in
public administration. He expects to
complete work for his Master' s degree
this month and enter the University of
Chicago in September.
The University of Oklahoma
also recently informed the Indian Of-
fice that Tennyson won $100 this sum-
mer in an essay competition on the
foreign policy of the United States.
A University of Oklahoma
professor told an Indian Service offi-
cial that Tennyson "is probably the
most outstanding of the group (Indian)
here on the campus and has had several
straight A averages. One of the pro-
fessors in government who is well ac-
quainted with Tennyson said that he
would as gladly recommend Tennyson for
any position as any other student in
Tennyson is the son of
Dennis Bushyhead Suagee and Maude
Foreman Suagee, both one-half Cherokee,
of Bartlesville, Oklahoma.
Attended Albuquerque School
Antoinette Abeita, whose mother is dead, is the daughter of An-
tonio Abeita. She attended the Albuquerque Indian School and high school
at St. Vincent's Academy under the Sisters of Charity, before entering St.
Anthony's School of Nursing.
Well-liked in high school, she was editor of St. Vincent's bi-
monthly paper. Her editorial to the graduating class of 1938 offers this
bit of sage advice:
" dear Senior, do not look with superior eyes upon the ro-
mance-starved world that is filled with the suffering and disappointments of
many former graduates whose lives have been ruined by the monsters of fail-
ure and misfortune, and say: 'Oh, but those things cannot happen to me'.'
"They can and may happen to you. But do not cower before them.
After they have knocked you down - get up. Dust yourself off. Smile and
say: 'They can happen to me but they cannot and shall not get me down.'"
GRASS-ROOTS DEMOCRACY ON THE DESERT
By Eleanor B. Williams
We sat out on the desert. The cool spring air made the hot sun
welcome. Scattered around us were a dozen or more Papago houses. Built of
adobe brick or hunks of earth held together by the knotty ocotilla of the
desert, the flat one-story houses looked warm and tanned in the morning sun.
Children played in the shade of the ramadas and a few men sat in front of
the leader's house. There was no other sign of life.
Along The Mexican Border
On all sides of us stretched mountains, purple in the distance.
Old Baboquivari Peak, a landmark from almost any point in Papago land, tow-
ered behind us down Mexico way. The Papago Reservation in Arizona, stretches
for many miles along the Mexican border.
The desert bloomed richly in all its own varied species of life.
We had come through fields of desert mallow, tiny orange cup flowers that
grow like midget hollyhocks, skirts of low purple lupine, thistles that
bloom like giant white poppies, golden mariposa lilies and a host of others.
Often the miles of desert flowers were broken with the spidery green palo
verde, which in another month would burst forth in yellow blossom, the mes-
quite tree, the green hedge-like creosote, and majestic cactii of all kinds,
prickly pear, cholla, barrel and the huge organ-like saguaro.
At The Meeting
Suddenly three horsemen appeared on the horizon. In a few minutes
they were just outside the village. They tied their horses to a tree, took
off their spurs, and joined us at the meeting place. They were men in their
50' s and 60* s. Some had ridden 15 miles, or several hours, to come to the
meeting. In the next half hour, others appeared, one by one, by horse or
foot, seemingly from nowhere.
An Outdoor Business Meeting
Three rough benches, adjoining the adobe meeting house, formed a
square in which we sat. There were only two of us Americanos, Mr. Ralph
Gelvin, the Extension Agent, and me. There were 27 Papagos when we were
ready to begin, most of them middle-aged, but a few in their teens and three
or four very old men.
Except for Peter Blaine, Chairman of the Tribal Council who inter-
preted, these men came to represent the people of S'chuk-Toak. S'chuk-Toak
district covers 71A square miles. It is more than half the size of Rhode
Island, but has only 400 residents living in a dozen scattered villages.
S'chuk-Toak is one of nine districts which comprise Papagueria. The young-
est large Indian reservation in the United States and the second in size,
the land of the Papago Nation slightly e xceeds the State of Connecticut
All but one village in S'chuk-Toak sent delegates to the meeting.
The chief of this village was sick, and as notice of the meeting had come
only the day before, he sent word that he had been unable to find a substi-
tute. However, he wanted those at the
meeting to know his village would a-
gree to the work planned if the plans
were consistent with the welfare of
A Nice Sense Of Humor
By 10:30 all the delegates
had gathered in the square. The talk
was in Papago, of course, which nei-
ther Mr. Gelvin nor I understood. I
soon discovered, however, the Papagos
had a sense of humor. As the conver-
sation began, some of the men glanced
up at me and laughed. I offered to
leave, but Pete Blaine, the interpre-
ter, said, "No, they don't want you to
leave. They're just joking about a
woman being present at their meeting
for the first time."
Most of the men wore cowboy
hats and 'kerchiefs around their
necks. A few wore high-heeled cowboy
boots. There was some Spanish blood
among them, but the majority we re
full-blood Papagos. They rolled their
own cigarettes and sat relaxed on the
backless benches, smoking in silence,
or talking casually and softly among themselves. Two boys lounged on the
Finally, the interpreter turned to the extension agent and spoke
in English. He suggested that Mr. G-elvin review the purpose of the meeting.
The Facts Are Stated
The farm expert answered slowly and succinctly, pausing for a
long time between each statement, until the interpreter was ready for him
to continue. Mr. Gelvin said he had conferred with the state veterinarian
who complimented the Indians on cooperating to eliminate dourine (a venereal
disease) among their horses. The speaker explained that this work was being
done on the outside among white-owned horses. The state veterinarian
thought that by May 1 the entire outside area around the reservation would
be "cleaned up. " When the outside horses had all been tested and the dis-
eased ones disposed of, state officials could place a rigid quarantine on
the Papago Reservation and refuse to allow the Papagos to sell their horses
if they failed to cooperate.
It took Pete Blaine many minutes to interpret before the exten-
sion agent proceeded with the next statement. Sometimes he would tell us he
had illustrated the point with a story or explained some of the opinions of
the tribal council members or repeated the point until he felt certain ev-
Mr. Gelvin gave the names of the Papago delegates who had accom-
panied him to the meeting with the state veterinarian. He said the Papago
tribal council had discussed the problem in three meetings and had then
voted to proceed with the work. (Each of the districts has representatives
on the tribal council.)
The plan was to begin the round-ups in the first four districts at
the same time. Each district would have two state doctors on hand to test
the horses. By July 1, the horses over the entire reservation would be
rounded up and awaiting the results of the blood tests. Each district
should select its own range foreman and its best riders to handle the round-
ups. The only difference in this round-up and those the Papago usually have
when their cattle and horses are offered for sale, Mr. Gelvin explained,
would be that the Government would pay the men for their round-up work. Mr.
Gelvin then suggested that the meeting be opened for questions.
A Leader Speaks
A slight old man who looked almost insignificant among the big
men with massive features, spoke up. He was obviously a leader. Later I
learned he was one of the biggest stockholders on the reservation. The in-
terpreter translated for us:
"This is the head man of San Pedro Village. He says he has noth-
ing to ask now. The Council has decided the work is good for the people,
and all he can say is that he hopes the plans will be carried out well. He
wants the plans to be carried out well, because he does not want his village
to think this is something which has been put over on them. He wants his
people to see the real meaning and value of the work. He wants them to see
the work help them."
The questions came quickly and logically, one by one. Sometimes
there was a minute or two of silence after the answer, then someone thought
of another question. "Would there be enough doctors to handle the horses as
they were brought in daily?" "How long would the horses be held in the
corral or pasture where the tests were made?" "Would there be any charge
for feeding the horses?" "When the doctors made a spot test previously to
discover whether any dourine existed on the reservation, they marked the
horses' hoofs. How would they identify those they tested and found clean
Mr. G e 1 v i n ex-
plained a skin-brand would
be necessary. Opposition
was anticipated on this
point. But evidently, the
Fapagos had thought this
question through and decided
if the work were to have
permanent re suits, a skin
brand would be necessary.
As the hours
rolled on and the sun
climbed high overhead, the
Papagos continued to talk or
listen attentively, each one
participating in his own
way. During the four-and-a-
half hours I remained at the
meet ing, there was not a
single gesture of impatience
or boredom. The relaxed ex-
pressions on their faces
hardly ch anged except for
occasional laughter. Once
John Blaine's face expressed
concern. John Blaine is a member of the District Council of S'chuk-Toak.
He said he did not know what man the District could select for range fore-
man. He did not know a single man who was reliable and who at the same
time spoke both English and Papago and would understand what the doctors
were doing. Everyone laughed when he told the story of a man whom the
district had sent off once before to work for the people, and they found
him later, lying in a cactus, drunk.
And The Talk Went On
The extension agent stated there was no need to select a man for
range foreman who could speak English. The range foreman would direct the
work of the riders and the tribal council would have a representative on
hand to serve as interpreter for him when the doctors began the tests.
And the talk went on and on. John Blaine volunteered the use of
two or three corrals at Santa Rosa ranch. There were many more details,
the work, the tests, the branding, and the disposal or sale of the horses
which the delegates continued to thresh out. They never asked for advice.
They simply asked for points of information.
In the middle of the afternoon the extension man said that if
there were no other questions he would excuse himself. The leaders were
still planning the details of the round-ups, the camps for the ridere, the
meals, corrals, and so forth, and they did not need any assistance.
During the four-and-a-half hours of talk, there had been only a
pail of water passed around and none of the delegates had eaten lunch. As
we left at 3 : 30 Pete Blaine said they would probably talk an hour or two
longer before returning to their villages. And it was not just talk. It
was serious business. These Papagos had taken a day off from work to come
to the meeting. Much had to be accomplished, and everyone must understand.
A Lesson In Democratic Practice
I had been fascinated by the soft rhythmical flow of words, the
casual silences, and the intelligent questions. As far as I could gather,
not a single point had been raised again, once it was thoroughly discussed.
"I wish we had more of their philosophy," the eztension agent re-
marked, and I agreed.
The Women Sell Their Baskets Through A Tribal Board
PERU WOULD LEARN FROM US
The recent visit of Dr. Luis E.
Valcarcel, General Director of the National
Museum of Peru and head of the Peruvian
Government's Department of Antiquities, to
Commissioner John Collier of the United
States Office of Indian Affairs, is another
step in the achievement of hemispheric sol-
idarity not only through economic exchange,
but also through the exchange of thought
and experience for the mutual benefit of
the countries involved. Dr. Valcarcel, who
has under his direction 21 museums in the
principal cities of Peru, was sent to Wa-
shington by the Peruvian Government to tour
our Indian reservations and confer with In-
dian Service officials.
Explaining the purpose of his
Dr. Luis E. Valcarcel visit, Dr. Valcarcel said: "In my native
country, where the Indian population is
five-eighths of the total (8,000, COO), the
education of the Indian and the development of his arts and industries is
one of the major problems which confronts us. Knowing that the Office of
Indian Affairs of the United States of America was engaged with some of
these same problems, my Government sent me to the United States where I
have been fortunate in visiting a number of the reservations, and in call-
ing on the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, who guides the advances of which
I have been a first-hand observer.
"On first reaching the United States and looking at Indian chil-
dren, I saw the same faces that I have been used to gazing on in Peru. On
visiting the reservations I found the same problems that are confronting us
in Peru, and some of these problems are being successfully solved.
"Exchange of experiences with the Commissioner has been most ad-
vantageous. I am delighted to see the Indian crafts being developed, and
alphabets and primers being devised for instruction in native languages
and cultures. Exchange of ideas and study of the successes and failures
of lines of work in the two countries will result in putting Indian wel-
fare and education on a firm and lasting base."
In most South American countries, Dr. Valcarcel pointed out, In-
dian classification is made culturally rather than racially. Of Peru's
5 1 million Indians, U, 000, 000 are mixed-blood who speak only the native
Indian language and live in Indian villages, or "pueblos", and are there-
fore counted as Indians. The majority of Peru's Indian population lives
in native pueblos. Some have small holdings of land on which they grow
corn or raise sheep or llamas. Some work on "haciendas" or farms. The
Indians elect municipal governments each year which are directly respon-
sible to the Government of Peru.
Peruvian Indians still dress in styles borrowed centuries ago
from the Spanish invaders, Dr. Valcarcel said. Red is a predominant col-
or, accented by brilliant yellows and blues. The men wear sombreros, shorts,
shirts, and ponchos (a kind of sleeveless frock). The women's clothes are
similar, except that they cover themselves with bright blankets instead
Through education and the development of Indian arts and in-
dustries, the Peruvian Government offers to its vast Indian population the
same opportunity for self-determination and national participation which
is the underlying policy of our own Office of Indian Affairs.
How Springtime Came To The Qua paw or- The Worm That Turned
By Brant C. Bracken, of the Quapaw Agency Staff
Those inevitable harbingers of spring - the robins, have found
the inviting lawn around our vocational shop building. And they like it.
In fact, they have made its grassy sod their permanent stomping ground.
But this isn't entirely due to Mr. Robin's love of scenic beauty. There's
a far more tempting attraction. Worms. Big, fat, wriggly ones.
The soil under our luxuriant lawn has been amply fertilized with
barnyard manure. This, we are told, is the favorite choice for a home of
any fastidious worm. It is the exclusive residential district where only
worms of the elite class reside. The robins know this. And their appetite
for these prized specimens of the worm world knows no bounds. Poor worms ...
In this world where only the fittest survive, the odds are against
the worm. But last week, the odds were reversed. A lowly worm, believe it
or not, almost knocked out a robin J
It happened like this: The raiding robin had one end of the worm
in his beak and was pulling hard trying to extract the other end of the un-
willing worm from the ground. The robin yanked and heaved, and he had the
worm stretched out three or four inches, like a piece of rubber. But the
worm was stubborn; he held fast. Finally, after several minutes of this
tug-of-war, the worm let go. Snap.' He hit the robin between the eyes, and
the robin actually staggered.'
Moral: Even a worm will turn.
,'%'-v « f -
Women Attend Tribal Meetings, Too. Stewarts Point, California.
Indians In the News
Eight hundred Navajos are at work at the Fort Wingate, New Mexico
Ordnance Depot, where the Army is building a multi-million-dollar plant for
storing munitions. Three thousand men are employed on the job. These Nav-
ajo Indians are at work tying steel, building forms, finishing cement, driv-
ing trucks and bossing Indian gangs. Promotions are coming steadily. Navajo
income from wages in private industry last year totaled approximately $150,
000. The Wingate project probably will increase that figure to a million
dollars this year. Wingate officials indicated that 1,500 Navajos will be
employed at the peak.
Army officers and contractors at the project wondered where so
many of the Navajo workmen learned to operate tractors, trucks and perform
so well as skilled carpenters and stone masons. The answer is that the Ci-
vilian Conservation Corps program on the Navajo Reservation during the
past eight years has enabled many Navajos so inclined to learn those occu-
pations. It is believed that the Wingate work will be a stepping stone
toward better jobs for the Indians after the emergency ends. Santa Fe,
New Mexico . The New Mexican. l/lOAl.
Soil conservation, which is today so vital to our national de-
fense, is merely a reincarnation of methods and ideas developed seven hun-
dred years ago by the Pueblo Indians, the Department of Agriculture an-
nounced recently. These early Indian farmers were fairly successful with
at least five principal types of conservation practices which enabled them
to cultivate gardens and raise corn with scant and undependable rainfall.
One of the more important of these systems, employing the use of a combina-
tion of dikes and dams to trap flash floods and spread water over entire
fields and gardens, is still widely used by up-to-date farmers. In develop-
ing further soil conservation systems, the Pueblos learned to build ter-
races of boulders to catch runoff water and soil from the upper slopes so
that cultivated plots received the benefit of rains falling on a much larg-
er area. They built check dams in intermittent watercourses and planted
gardens in the soil the dams held back, so that water was detained for crop
use. Worcester, Massachusetts. The Telegram. 6/15/41 .
Governor Harlan Bushfield's 194.O campaign promise to the Sioux In-
dians to provide them an opportunity to present a dignified public showing
of their authentic apparel, handicraft and customs, will become a reality.
Some time ago the Governor suggested to the South Dakota Park Board that the
Sioux be allowed to erect a model Indian village in Custer State Park to
give visitors a true picture of Sioux Indian life. A site has now been
selected for the location of the village and it soon will be in operation.
The Park Board officially approved the Governor's plan and the Federal Of-
fice of Indian Affairs offered to provide help and advice in operating the
village. The Indian Arts and Crafts Board of the Department of the Interior
is cooperating with the Indian Bureau in developing plans. At the village
this summer - and it is hoped every summer hereafter - the Indians will work
daily at their various crafts, producing authentic Indian items for sale.
Receipts from all sources will be divided among the members of the commun-
ity. Rapid City , South Dakota . The Journal . 6/17/41 .
The Conodoguinet Chapter of the Children of the American Revolu-
tion at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, conducted a service to the memory of the
original Americans. The service was held at the Indian cemetery maintained
by the Government for the students who died while in attendance at the Car-
lisle Indian School. With this meeting as a nucleus, the Society hopes to
perpetuate the memory of the red man by inaugurating an annual ceremony.
Carlisle . Pennsylvania . The Evening Sentinel . 5/31/4-1.
The largest livestock movement in the United States is now under
way on the Navajo Indian Reservation, as 650,000 sheep and goats tread from
their home ranges to dipping vats located throughout the 16,000,000-acre
reservation. The Navajos call on their gods to protect their flocks as
they travel to the dipping points and back. Nightly sings are held enroute
and pollen is often scattered over the home corral before departure. The
average Navajo family makes a holiday of the dipping event. Usually the
women do the actual dipping, fearing to trust their precious stock to the
hands of strangers. This great spring dipping season on the reservation is
conducted by the Indian Service in cooperation with the Bureau of Animal
Industry of the Department of Agriculture. Santa Fe, New Mexico . New Mex-
ican Examiner . 6/22/41 .
Commander of the Will Rogers Air Base, Col. Ross G. Hoyt, recent-
ly became White Eagle of the Comanches as Chief Albert Attocknie presented
him with a feathered bonnet at the Chamber of Commerce forum luncheon. Chief
Attocknie paid tribute to Will Rogers as a great Indian and a great American
when he conferred honors on the Base Commander. Oklahoma City . Oklahoma .
The Oklahoman . 6/14/41.
A short time ago a stalwart young Maricopa Indian petitioned the
tribal court to have his name changed. At birth he had been given the name
"All Right." The court agreed that his request was reasonable and that his
name "might be misleading." After a great deal of red tape had been un-
wound, representatives of the Great White Father authorized the court to
permit "Maricopa Indian known as 'All Right' to change his legal name to any
other name of his choosing."
Asked if he had selected another name, the young Indian answered
promptly: "Yes, I change 'All Right' to 'O.K.'" This Week Magazine. Stock-
ton , California . The Record . 7/8/41 .
Chaca, A Hopi CCC Worker At A Party
When some bOO Hopi and their invited Indian Service friends held
their first big picnic this past spring, it was Chaca who gave out the or-
anges and no one got more than his share. It was the first such social
gathering the Hopi have ever had. The occasion was the birthday of the
Civilian Conservation Corps, celebrated in CCC camps on Indian reservations
all over the country. The Hopi live in villages atop three rocky cliffs
known as Mesas. Miles below them are patches of sand and desert where they
grow their crops and graze their sheep. They must work hard to survive.
In recent years, Hopi, like Chaca, have been working through the CCC to
break the huge arroyos which, when the rains come, carry away their good
top soil and crops.
"Food Is Important To National Defsnse
says the local Defense Committee on the Rosebud Indian Reserva-
tion, South Dakota. (See letter, opposite page.) Above, a Sioux
student at the Mission Boarding School at Rosebud.
from the A fail Bag
My dear Mr. Collier:
June 12, 1941
I wish to thank you, and through you Mr. D'Arcy McNickle, for a
most interesting review of my book, "McGillycuddy Agent." It interests me
greatly to get the various reactions to McGillycuddy' s handling of the In-
dians and hope you know that even if he may have seemed arbitrary at times,
he loved the Indians and felt great confidence that they would make excel-
With many thanks for the charming magazine, I am,
(Signed) Julia B. McGillycuddy
Food And National Defense
Rosebud, South Dakota
Dear Mr. Collier:
The National Defense Committee for the Rosebud Reservation is com-
posed of three employees and three Indians. The Indian members are George
Whirlwind Soldier, Felix Walking Eagle and Antoine Roubideaux. The employee
members are K. K. Newport, Principal of Education; John G. Cable, Road En-
gineer; and A. J. Jellison, CCC-ID Project Manager.
The three Indian members of the committee volunteered to attend
meetings in each one of the communities, advising the community members of
the functions of the National Defense Committee - specifically emphasizing
to the people the desirability of every family and every individual bending
increased, efforts toward the production of food. This seems especially ap-
propriate since the garden and farm season will soon be upon us. In their
talks to the communities this committee is emphasizing the fact that the in-
creased production of food by Indian families is not only a patriotic duty
but will be reflected very substantially in the improvement of their own ec-
onomic situation. They will discuss the probability that food prices will
increase; that in the defense program the possibility of financial aid and
assistance will necessarily be reduced; that while many Indian families are
receiving benefits from the distribution of surplus commodities, these com-
modities are available only because they are surplus and that if the eco-
nomic situation in foreign countries should absorb these surpluses they will
no longer be available for general relief distribution.
This local defense committee holds itself in readiness to respond
to any request made upon it for services in behalf of the Nation.
(Signed) C. R. Whitlock, Superintendent
Jobless Youths Take Up Farming
Hoopa Valley Agency, California
During the present season we have been conducting a project of a
type which we believe might be beneficially followed by other units of the
We were particularly concerned with the young Indian men who have
completed their school work within the last few years but who have not found
steady employment or made beneficial use of the farm lands belonging to
themselves or to members of their families. For this reason, last summer
we contacted young men of this type and were successful in getting a number
of them to return to the Sherman Institute for advanced training in mechan-
ical work, with the hope of securing employment in that line. We also con-
tacted those more interested in agriculture than in mechanical training
for the purpose of getting them started in farm work.
In the majority of cases lack of farming equipment was the chief
reason preventing them from engaging in agriculture. Then, through the of-
fice of Miss Mary Stewart, Superintendent of Indian Education for this
State, we secured an allotment to purchase a Ford tractor, plow, disc har-r
row and mowing machine, which cost approximately $1,300.
The Young Farmers' Club was organized. Each member agreed to pay
either in cash or in produce raised, for the use of the equipment: $1.00
per acre for breaking, 50# per acre for harrowing, and 50tf per acre for
cultivating. The club member was to furnish all labor and gas and oil for
The equipment arrived a little later in the spring than we wished,
but the applications of seventeen members were approved. These young men
have kept the equipment going almost constantly since its arrival here.
Thirteen gardens have been planted; eight persons have planted a total of 21
acres in grain hay; ten persons are planting a total of 60 acres in corn,
and three persons have planted a total of 15 acres in clover, vetch and
Sudan grass. Four acres are broken but not yet planted. Two club members
failed to comply with their agreement to cultivate a total of six acres. We
have applications from others for the use of the equipment which we believe
will keep it steadily engaged until the ground becomes too dry to plow.
Applications are coming in from persons who wish to reserve the use of the
equipment for fall plowing. Most of the land involved is under irrigation.
The equipment is the property of the Hoopa Valley Public School.
Through this institution the young men are organized as a class in Adult Ed-
ucation, and the class will receive the benefits and appropriations provided
by state law. The project is directly supervised by the Agency Farmer.
Very truly yours,
(Signed) 0. M. Boggess, Superintendent.
In California, Indian Boys Make Attractive
Jewelry From Beach Shells And Pebbles
A Tribute From Yakima
White Swan, Washington.
The foremost aim of the Indians on the Yakima Reservation is to
strive for improvement in the home, in the fields, in care and raising of
livestock, and in forest conservation. This has been excellently demon-
strated in the work of the Wigwam Club, The Klickitat River Cattle Associa-
tion, and the Indian Council, as well as other reservation organizations.
Group work is very effective on the reservation, partly because the people
are a cooperative lot, and partly because of the wonderful leadership of
local parties and Government field agents sent to this locality.
We have been very fortunate in obtaining the services of capable
Government employees, who have put forth much time and effort to show us
newer and more satisfactory methods of getting the most from our land.
During the past few years much improvement has been noted here,
and we realize that much of the credit should go to the individuals who have
been sent here for that purpose. Through the help of leaders in various
clubs and organizations, the people have begun to take pride in the ap-
pearance of their homes and land, in raising high-grade livestock, and in
conserving the forest regions. Credit for the improvements, however, should
also go to members of the Yakima Tribe because of their willingness to gain
more knowledge and information, and their ability to use that knowledge.
Mr. Thomas L. Carter, who has recently been transferred to Bil-
lings, Montana, is one of the many who have helped us raise the reservation
standards. Although his main work as Chief Forester was in the field of
Forest Conservation, he has also done much in other fields to help the peo-
ple become more independent and self-supporting. He has aided us greatly
in getting full control of mountain pastures for livestock, and he has also
worked to eliminate the destruction of game and fish, which are still de-
pended on for food by the majority of the people on this reservation.
To show our appreciation of Mr. Carter's assistance, the Cattle
Association, Tribal Business Council and the Wigwam Club cooperated in pro-
moting and giving a banquet in his honor. Philip Olney, Chairman of the
Tribal Council, acted as ioastmaster at a very fine banquet held at the
White Swan School auditorium where 130 Indians and some whites met and paid
tribute to Mr. Carter's work. This was the first time that our Indian peo-
ple have gathered together and given such a party for an employee leaving
The people have a great deal to be thankful for in having had Mr.
Carter's services for ten years. We are sorry he is leaving us, but we are
glad he can be of help to some other group, who will doubtless benefit
greatly from his aid. Mr. Carter is one example of the fine leaders sent to
the Yakima Reservation, and with other leaders like him, we shall continue
to work together and improve our reservation for the younger Indian genera-
tion. Leona Fiander (18-year-old Indian girl.)
An Ancient And Dangerous Profession.
Indians Catch Salmon By Means Of Hand
Nets Along The Great Columbia River.
The Dalles, Oregon.
Seminole Women And Children
Af Their "Chickee" Home In
The Florida Everglades.
William B. Hill Is New Superintendent At Seminole
William B. Hill, Indian Service Associate Highway Engineer in
Oklahoma, was recently promoted to the position of Superintendent of the
Seminole Indian Agency, Dania, Florida.
As Superintendent of this Agency, Mr. Hill will have under his
jurisdiction 600 Seminole s, descendants of the small band which stubborn-
ly fought and resisted the Army's attempts to move them west of the Mis-
sissippi with the great Seminole Nation.
Since 1933 when Mr. Hill entered the Indian Service as Road En-
gineer at Mission Agency, Riverside, California, he has steadily advanced
to more responsible positions. Through his experience in supervising road
and bridge construction, Mr. Hill has demonstrated his ability to work with
and train Indians who are employed almost 100 per cent on all construction
jobs on Indian reservations. In addition to his assignments in Oklahoma
and California, Mr. Hill has worked on the Mescalero Apache Reservation,
Arizona, and at the Carson Indian Agency, Nevada.
Mr. Hill, who is 41 years old, was born in Hyattsville, Maryland,
attended high school in Washington, D. C, and received a Bachelor of Sci-
ences' degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Maryland. Mr.
Hill is familiar with the Florida terrain, having been stationed there on
engineering assignments in connection with the building of railroads and
bridges from 1925 to 1929 .
Herbert Welsh, Veteran Crusader, Dies
Herbert Welsh, artist, publicist and one of the founders of the
Indian Rights Association, died on June 28 at Montpelier, Vermont, after
two years' illness. He was 89 years old.
A vigorous fighter for the rights of the American Indian, Mr.
Welsh helped found the Indian Rights Association in 1882, served as cor-
responding secretary of the Association for 34 years, its president for 11
years, and then was named president emeritus. The Indian Rights Associa-
tion, long prominent in Indian affairs, is the publisher of the monthly
paper, Indian Truth.
As a young man, Mr. Welsh after studying art in Philadelphia and
Paris, visited the Sioux country where he was inspired to found an organiza-
tion in the East, bringing to public attention conditions among the Indians.
Interested in many public welfare movements, Mr. Welsh lectured
and wrote articles on the Indian question, Civil Service reform, and prob-
lems of municipal government. He was the author of "Civilization Among the
Sioux Indians", "Four Weeks Among Some of the Sioux Tribes", "A Visit to
the Navajo", "Pueblo and Walapai Indians", "The Other Man's Country", and
"The New Gentlemen of the Road."
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